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About Canada

The name of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, daughter of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, has affected many of the names in this province: Lake Louise, village of Carolina, Mount Alberta, and the name of the province itself – Alberta. Male names were given to the two largest cities: Calgary and Edmonton, the capital where the majority of the population resides. Oil and gas industry has grown to the international level in these parts.

Native American tribes have historically occupied the area. Despite minor differences, they spoke the same language, had common roots and hunted buffalo – the bisons of the prairie. Now the land is partially preserved, there are several Indian reservations.

In Edmonton, close to the Space Research Centre, which has the first and largest Canadian planetarium, is the Edmonton Mall, the famous shopping complex that is considered the largest in the world.

The dry mountain climate makes the area near Calgary similar to Texas. Therefore, a festival of the Wild West is held there each year. The indomitable spirit that supports the motto of the province “Strong and Free“, cowboy hats, ethnic Indian clothes – all this flavor can be found on the streets of the city.

A very interesting park is located in the suburbs of the town of Drumheller. It has a collection of more than a 100 species of plants and statues of prehistoric animals on its territory, where the remains of dinosaurs that once inhabited the area can be found to this day.

New Brunswick is the heart of official bilingualism. Bordering with Francophone Quebec, as well as Anglophone Nova Scotia and the state of Maine, the province uses both languages. A bridge over the Northumberland Strait connecting Prince Edward’s island with the continent is located here.

Historically, this area was inhabited by Indians. Based on archaeological research, we know that the settling of other peoples was very rare. Presumably, the Vikings tried to take over these shores in the II century. The next mention of a visit by the Europeans dates back to the XVI century, when the French sailed to the shores of Canada, led by explorer Jacques Cartier. Interestingly, the first nation to drive the Indians away was the Danes.

The province’s internal economy is based on the cultivation of potatoes, which is distributed across the entire country. Mining and quarrying also plays an important role. The richness of the forests is striking in its scope, as they cover almost all of the land.

Due to the fairly small inflow of immigrants, slowly increasing population of Fredericton retains the original beauty of the capital. The city is located at the confluence of two rivers, Nashwaak and Saint John, while its other side meets the Atlantic Ocean.

The mild continental climate is favorable for walks in the national and city parks. Officers’ Park in Gagetown is famous for its military parades. Today, it is populated by artists and actors, and is the oldest city which originally housed the British.

Moosehead Beer is a large Canadian beer-brewing brand, founded in 1867 in Saint John. The town is famous not only for its alcoholic beverages, but also for its incredibly beautiful and high tides.

The Magnetic Hill, which alters the usual concept of gravity, is an entertaining natural phenomenon can be observed in the vicinity of the town Moncton. This hill pushes away metal objects, causing them to float in the air.

The motto of the province: “Hope restored”.

For almost a third of the year, Newfoundland is shrouded in a white fog, and the rocky shore, stretching up into the Appalachian Mountains, makes the sight even more picturesque. The province is bordered by two straits: Cabot Strait and Belle-Ile. The area is dotted with deposits of minerals, and in the southeastern part of the coast lies one of the world’s main commercial fisheries – Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The main portion of the population is dispersed along the coast of the Avalon Peninsula.

Every piece of land here has a history; there are many of excavation sites, historical parks and restored monuments. The first Viking settlement dates back to the XI century and has not changed since. St. John’s, the current capital of the province, is the oldest location historically populated by the British since the middle of the XVI century. In addition, a large concentration of churches follows and justifies the motto of Newfoundland and Labrador, “Seek ye first the kingdom of God.” A unique fluvarium is located in Newfoundland’s Freshwater Resource Center, a 25-meter glass window into the nature’s wide variety.

Natural and beautiful scenery of local villages attracts professional and amateur photo and video enthusiasts alike. More than 80 national and natural parks are spread out along the coast. Particular attention should be paid to Cape Spear: a beacon in the national park offers beautiful views of drifting icebergs brought from Greenland by the passage of a stream as well as migrating whales.

Another entertaining historical trivia occurred nearby, in the town of Corner Brook. In the distant past, it was here where Captain James Cook started his great journey around the world, having conquered the earth’s surface in a record time by the standards of those days.

Manitoba is a historically important province of Canada, which was added to its ownership in 1871. This was the turning point when Canada acquired two official languages. After all, even under the rule of the British government, the French colonists still continued to settle and find their way onto the territory. However, after several decades, the loyal teaching in the French language was discontinued, and all education became English-taught.

This change dramatically reduced the number of French Canadians, who were removed to the periphery. For this reason, the majority of the population moved to the Saint Boniface quarter in a suburb of Winnipeg, where education remains French-taught in a one-of-a-kind institution in the west of the country.

The province’s territory also provides an economic interest in the form of an ore industry. Tantalum ore, which is widely used in various industries ranging from filaments to nuclear technology, helped the cities around it to grow and develop.

Winnipeg, which was mentioned earlier, is the basic economic structure of the north-west of the country. Perhaps because of the high content of ore, the ponds and rivers in the area gained a darker, dirty shade, which the local Indian tribes called “win nipee”. This gave the village its name, recognized as such only in 1812, after the arrival of immigrants from Scotland. Prior to that, almost all the towns in the area were nothing but fort posts. Whereas in 1972, having combined within itself a dozen settlements, it grew to a population of just over 600,000 people and occupied an area of ​​465 square kilometers. Thus, the city became the largest structure in the region, raising to a high level the production of agricultural crops.

The residents really love their city, and there are plenty of reasons for that. Its beautiful parks and vast lakes leave an unforgettable impression. The eponymous lake is among the five largest lakes in Canada. Manitoba offers various parks for leisure: these include the amusement Assiniboine Park with a conservatory, a zoo and its own park of sculptures, a national park with beautiful unspoiled nature, and Kildonan, a rural municipality with the most beautiful plants. In the northern part of the province is the town of Churchill, which witnesses the migration of polar bear flocks every fall and is a popular place for photographers and wildlife enthusiasts.

Another seaside province is located in the eastern part of the country: Nova Scotia occupies the eponymous peninsula as well as Cape Breton. The province is bordered by the Atlantic currents, the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Historically, before the French colonists, these lands belonged to the Indian tribe of Mi’kmaq. The first European name of the area was Acadia. In 1720, the first lighthouse in Canada was established here. The first settlers from Scotland came here in 1773. They founded the city of Pictou, where Gaelic language and dialect are spoken to this day.

The capital Halifax is the largest port of the country, so the shipbuilding and fish-processing industries received the largest-scale development here. Automotive engineering and exploitation of petroleum feedstock also became an integral part of the economy. The favorable climate influenced the development of agricultural structures, the extensive apple orchards of Annapolis Valley are known throughout the provinces.

The intellectual needs are fulfilled by five universities of various orientations, including the university town of Antigonish, where the annual “Highland Games” sporting event takes place, and museums, including the popular Museum of The Army and Maritime Museum.

The classic attraction in many cities – the town hall clock, and in this case, the old town citadel clock, is situated on the highest hill and attracts many tourists with a breathtaking view.

Lunenburg, a fishing town with a picturesque harbor is protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site because it preserves local spirit and flavor. The coast is rich not only in settlements, but also in trails – Cabot Trail in a newly opened Cape Breton Highlands National Park offers a unique opportunity to enjoy the beautiful views of nature along its 300 km length.

The motto of the province is “One defends and the other conquers.”

Prince Edward Island is separated from Canadian mainland by the Northumberland Strait, over which the Confederation Bridge was build only in 1997. Today it is the fastest way to get to Charlottetown, the capital of the province.

Over the last centuries, the population of the island underwent several essential transformations, unlike the countryside, which only changed slightly due to the sand dunes. Initially, the Mi’kmaq Indians inhabited these areas, but they were replaced by the French in the 1820s, which were in turn replaced by the British 30 years later.

Like all capitals, Charlottetown is famous for its historical, cultural and architectural attractions. Among them is the meetinghouse of Charlottetown Conference, where the process leading to Canada creation started in 1864. There is also a post-modern style Confederation Centre of the Arts, a combined cultural complex: this building has a library, an art gallery, a theater and even a museum.

Canadians do not forget about the international origins of the country. One can study playing traditional bagpipes and Scottish folk dancing at a local community college. In addition, there are Celtic festivals held in Summerside, the carnival of lobsters, which are the island’s specialty as well as the Atlantic arm wrestling championship.

The province of Ontario is Canada’s second most densely populated federal region, with a population of about 13 thousand people. Besides the administrative center, Toronto, Ontario also contains within it the capital of Canada—Ottawa. As a result of this and of its size, the province has become a tourist and cultural center. The region is bilingual, but preference is given to English, not French.

The province is bordered by other regions—Quebec and Manitoba—while its southern part separates Canada from the territory of the United States. This area harbors the world-famous Niagara Falls, which is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world.

One interesting fact is that this province contains the longest street, Yonge Street, with a length of almost two thousand kilometers, as well as the CN Tower—the second largest tower in the world, and the Sky Dome sports stadium, which can accommodate 67 thousand people.

The CN Tower was built in 1975. This is a true example of modern art and highly modern technology. Its name was chosen by Canadian National, the first company that built it. The annual inflow of tourists amounts to over two million people. The enormous costs of this building were paid off: with its three viewing platforms (SkyPod at 447 meters, the Indoor Lookout Level at 346 meters, and the Outdoor Observation Terrace at 342 meters), the 360 Restaurant, which is fully rotated every 72 minutes, a wine cellar, Horizons Café and Marketplace Café, and a glass floor at the height of the Outdoor Observation Terrace. After the tower’s reconstruction in 1988, several features were added, including a modern cinema named “Maple Leaf” and a new children’s play center.

The Sky Dome stadium was built in 1989 and almost immediately became an incredibly popular place for wider audiences. One remarkable aspect of this structure is its retractable roof weighing 9 tons, whose blocks can be moved within just 20 minutes. A huge building as high as a 31-storey house is used for games, exhibitions, and concerts. The stadium is used by the football “Toronto Argonauts” team and the baseball “Toronto Blue Jays” for training.

Ontario’s motto: “Loyal she began, loyal she remains.

Province of Saskatchewan gained its fame due to the vast wheat fields, sand dunes and a rectangular shape. Sharply continental climate and spacious prairie made this province memorable by its magnificent sunsets.

Historically, the indigenous people of North America – the Indians, inhabited the province; European settlements did not take root in this area until the end of the 18th century. The district received its name from the eponymous river, which in the Cree language originally meant “swift flowing river”.

The population is about 1.5 million people, half of whom live in the two largest cities: Saskatoon and the capital city of Regina. The latter is located in a dehydrated desert area, so since the beginning of settlement, there were many dams built and every available square meter of land was worked.

The capital was founded in the late 19th century in the center of the province. The name is derived from the locally widespread shadberry shrubs (Saskatoon berry), the fruits, which were used in the manufacture of wine, and more recently to create a cardiovascular group drugs.

Saskatchewan economy is based in part on the oil and uranium processing and more importantly – on the agricultural production of cereals, particularly wheat. In spite of the sudden changes in climate, with temperatures ranging from 40 °C to -40 °C depending on the season, local national parks have been preserved in excellent condition. Thus the Wanuskewin Heritage Park has been a National Historic Site since 1986, it contains a variety of exhibits on the way of life of the Indian tribes.

The motto of the province is: “Strength from Many Peoples“.

In the west of Canada stretches the picturesque province of British Columbia, rich in natural parks and historical monuments. The beauty and majesty is emphasized by the nature: a 440-meter tall Della Falls attract many tourists. Ibid also lays world famous Capilano Suspension Bridge at the height of 70 m. Those who come to enjoy nature can also have the pleasure of whale watching, scuba diving and surfing.

The Vancouver Island deserves special attention. Named in honor of the discoverer of the coast, it is 450 km long and has a leading position among the suppliers of ship timber. The capital of the province is located on the same island – Victoria, owing its name to the Queen of England. On February holidays, the city is covered with bright colors – during the flower show more than 5 million flowers bloom in one day.

The parliament building dates back to the late 19th century, gaining the status of the oldest building. Also drawing attention is the golden statue of Queen Victoria and the building of the Empress Hotel, which hosts classic English tea ceremonies. The gardens that adorn the city are rich in exotic plants and animals and are open to visitors in all seasons. Other than a walk through the parks and gardens, a visit to the zoo, the park of totems, art galleries or museums can also be a great outdoor pastime.

In southern British Columbia, there are several resorts near the valley of the vineyards. Kelowna attracts lovers of fishing and tennis, while Whistler, Blackcomb and Grouse invite everyone wishing to ski and snowboard every year.

The third megalopolis of Canada, Vancouver, pulls together the two shores of the Burrard Inlet with forests and snow-capped mountains. The first settlement on the site was organized by the prospectors during the Gold Rush. The original look of the old houses has been restored in great detail and now bears the name Gastown – the city of Gassy, one of the saloon owners. In the summer one can find many regatta yachts in the Gulf, preparing for a competition, and walk in the Stanley Park, among deep lakes and tall forests with an oceanarium hiding in the middle.

The motto of British Columbia is: “Splendor without diminishment.

Quebec is the country’s largest province and is almost entirely situated on the Canadian Shield, an approximately 4-billion-year-old ridged area of exposed rocks. Thanks to this geological feature, the area is rich in resources, such as gold, iron, uranium, copper, and others.

Here’s an interesting fact. Quebec is being a Little France tucked in between English-speaking areas: French is the only official language in the province.

The area is crossed by the Saint Lawrence River. At 1200km long, this is the world’s most navigable river. The riverbank is home to multiple animal and agricultural farms, which make up the biggest part of the region’s economy. The world-renowned maple syrup is also produced in Quebec, and the sugar maple leaf used for making this sweet treat can be found on the Canadian flag.

Jacque Cartier, the explorer who first discovered Canada for Europe, founded the first Canadian settlement in 1534 on this very fertile land. These days most of the population lives in big cities, such as Quebec City (the capital of the province) and Montreal.

Montreal—the sailing heart of the rivers Saint Lawrence, Ottawa, and Richelieu—is a home to most of the province’s manufacturing facilities and churches. One of them, Saint Joseph, was built atop a hill in the downtown area, and this Catholic symbol is visible from any part of the city. The 33m-tall cross attracts pilgrims from all over the world each year.

A few peculiar pieces of local architecture stand out from the traditional European style: they are small replicas of well-known buildings. The full-size version of Saint James’ Cathedral can be found in Rome where it’s called Saint Peter’s Basilica; whereas one street has the oldest building in town: an 1824 replica of Notre Dame de Paris. This basilica’s interior is also quite exceptional: pictures of saints and patron seamen and travelers, ancient anchors, and a diverse collection of sea vessels dating back as far as the 15th century. Newer areas are just as exciting as the Old Town: Saint Catherine Street with over 1,000 charming shops; the Olympic stadium; the city amusement park; and lots of gardens and bridges sitting on the riverbank, giving it a Venice-like feel.

The capital city was founded in the 17th century. It started out as a French fort built to defend against the British. What remains of the fortified city wall is now a UNESCO Heritage Site. The Old Town is also home to Chateau Frontenac, a 19th-century castle built in the medieval style. Photographers’ sweet spot is situated next to it, Terrasse Dufferin, a viewing platform offering a panorama of the city.

Another popular all-year tourist attraction is the Montmorency Falls. The water falls from a height of 84m in the summer and freezes in the winter, as if time had stopped in this ice column.

The province’s motto is, “Je me souviens” (“I remember”).

Canada. General information

Canada is the second largest country in the world, surrounded by three oceans: the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Arctic. The very origin of the country’s name refers to the year 1535, when explorer Jacques Cartier first arrived by ship from France and heard the word “canada” or “canata”, which means “village” in Laurentian. In 1867, the word caught on throughout the territory and became the name of the new state.

The territory covers an area of about 10 million square kilometers. Of these, only 8% are water area. The total length of the border between Canada and the United States is the longest in the world, at 8890 kilometers. As a place of communication between the two countries, the border and the nearby towns have received the status of the most populated parts of the country. However, since the total population of Canada is about 35 million people, the density is in fact minimal, at 3.5 people per kilometer.

Due to the abundance of territories and the preservation of the environment, the average life expectancy in Canada is 80 years, which is considered rather high. Canadians look after their health and quality of life, so sports are also quite developed in the country, mainly in the form of golf, swimming, and ice hockey. Another distinguishing feature is free public health insurance.

The leading religion in the country is Christianity, at 83%. Of all the religious people of Canada, 46% visit the Roman Catholic Church, while 36% visit Protestant masses.

The country’s bilingualism is distributed between the English language, spoken by 60% of the population, and French, spoken by 23%. The remaining percentages are distributed among other languages, of which the currently leading language is Chinese, having recently overtaken Italian and German.

The capital of Canada is Ottawa, while Toronto rightfully carries the status of the largest city.

info toronto

The vast geography of Canada is rather impressive. The highest point, located on Mount Logan, reaches almost 6,000 meters. The circuit of large freshwater lakes is the largest in the world; these are the world famous Michigan, Erie, Superior, Ontario, and Huron. Their area stretches to almost 250 thousand square kilometers. It is also interesting to note that in the depths of Lake Huron is the largest freshwater island, Manitoulin, with an area of ​​2.8 square kilometers. Lake Ontario’s waters find their way to the famous Niagara Falls. The Mackenzie River is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a bed of 4,241 kilometers long.

Canada Day has been celebrated since July 1st, 1867, from the moment the British North American act was signed. Thus, the legal system introduced was in English for the entire country, with the exception of the Francophone province of Quebec. The age of consent is set at 18, as in most countries.

The form of government in Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of the state in which democracy and equality prevail. The head of the government is Prime Minister Stephen Harper, although the country is officially ruled by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, represented by her Governor General David Lloyd Johnston. The parliament consists of the House of Commons and the Senate; the first has 131 members who are elected every five years, while the 125 senators are appointed by the Governor General himself.

Regarding the economy, a positive factor is the lack of people living below the poverty line. After all, the country’s unemployment rate is only 6.6%. The external debt of the country as of last year (2014) amounted to about 612 billion Canadian dollars. Meanwhile, Canada’s industrial production grows significantly with every year.

Canadian land is rich in mineral resources, most of which are oil and gas resources, as well as minerals in the form of nickel, iron ore, silver, zinc, lead, diamonds, gold, and coal. Interestingly enough, Canada has managed to acquire a leading position in this aspect also, becoming the second country in the world, after Saudi Arabia, with the largest oil reserves.

All communication is carried out both by land transport and by air. Canada has 1,389 airports. The length of the railway line is over 65,000 kilometers, while the total length of the roads amounts to 900,000 kilometers, among which is the longest highway, at 7,604 kilometers.